Based on the materials of Boris Malinovsky's books
A rapid computer science (CS) development and it's scientific principles formation began at the
Before this time for almost 500 years all the calculus tools came to simple calculus devices for arithmetic operations. Almost all of the invented tools were based on cog-wheel to fix decimal notation 10 digits.
First sketch of 13-digit cog-wheel adder was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci at one of his diaries in about 1492.
In 1623, more than 100 years after Leonardo da Vinci death another project of 6-digit cog-wheel device for arithmetic operations was designed by German scientist Vilgelm Shikkard. Both inventions were found only recently and remains only in drafts.
The first real existed mechanical calculus device was "Pascaline", designed by prominent scientist Blez Pascal. It was 6 (or 8) digital cog-wheel device for decimal numbers adding and subtraction (1642).
In 1673, 30 years after "Pascaline" another 12 digital device was designed by Gotfrid Vilgelm Leibnits. It was based on not only cog-wheeels, but also on step-roller. G.Leibnits wrote proudly, that his device can instantly multiply and divide big numbers.
More than 100 years pass, and only then some principal steps in calculus devices development were made in France at the end of XYIII, namely loom management with punch-cards, designed by Joseph Jakkard and calculation technology by Gaspar de Proni, who split calculation process to three stages: 1) to design the way of calculations, 2) to write a program as arithmetic operations sequence 3) to make calculations according to the program. Both of these two innovations were used by Englishman Charles Babbage, who made qualitively new step in calculation devices development - changing from hand-made to automatic calculations according to designed program. He designed the project of Analytical device - mechanical universal digital program-managed device
An operation principles and programs for Babbage device were composed by Ada Augusta Lovelace, Byron's daughter.
Some units of the device were created, but attempt to assemble the whole device failured because of it's bulk. It were required about 50.000 cog-wheels, to say nothing about the other. Babbage dreamed to put so bulky device to operation with the help of steam-engine. This idea was realized by American scientist Hovard Aiken, who create first relay-mechanical device in 1944. It arithmetic and storage blocks were based on cog-wheels.
Babbage ideas were long way ahead of his time, but Aiken's decision to use cog-whells may be considered as outdated idea. Ten years before, in 1934 German student Konrad Zuse decided to make household digital device with program management and (first in the world!) with binary notation. In 1937 Z1 (Zuse 1) device was put into operation. It was binary, 22 bit, with floated point, 64 digital storage capacity, and that's all was designed on mechanical (lever) basis!
At the same time as binary device Z1 was put into operation, John Vincent Atanasoff (ethnic Bulgarian, who lived in the USA) began to design the calculus device, based on vacuum tubes (300 items).
Englishmen also were pioneers in electronics. In 1942-43 in England the electronic device "Coloss" was created by Alan Turing. It contained 2000 vacuum tubes. This device was destined for fascist Germany radiogram messages decoding. Zuse and Turing's works were kept in strong secret, and were known only by a few people. That's why these works doesn't make any response in the world. Only in 1946, when the information about EDIC (electronic digital generator and computer), created in the USA by J.Mauchly and P.Eckert appears, promising future of electronic technics become clear (there were about 18 thousands in the device, and the rate was about 3 thousands operations per second). However, the device remains digital, storage capacity was only 20 words, and the programs were kept outside the primary storage.
"...In summer 2001 the Babbige's machine had been already built due to efforts of Dr. Doron Swade*, Head of Collections, Science Museum, London. This machine turned out to be not only of a brilliant design, but also amasterpiece of engineering. It was made of over eight thousand separate parts, which were mostly manufactured by hand -five tons of precision mechanics in all! "The Printer of 19th century" is mostly impressive. It prints off computation results on the printing-mould surface and then prints them on the paper. Thus, the tomorrow becomes a replica of the past, and mechanical flickering of parts - likenlivend music of thought, likevisible play of logic. A turn of the handle and the entire machine gets in motion. It thinks. Its rollers crack; the spindles grunt; the bars tap; the wheels rotate.
In his time Babbige hoped that the machine, invented by him would forecast natural disasters and impacts of fate, making compilation of numerous figures and facts and transforming a sequence of single events into a fatal picture of universal relation of things.
Now his machine has to drag out a modest and unreal existence. From time to time Swade would provide visitors of the museum with a souvenir -a sheet of paper with the Babbige's favourite equation: Y=X2+X+41..."
* - Dr. Doron Swade, Head of Collections, Science Museum, London, http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/
The final point in electronic devices creation was put, almost simultaneously, in 1949-52 by English, Soviet and American scientists. (Maurice Wilkes, 1949, Sergei Lebedev, 1951, John Mauchly, Presper Eckert, John fon Newman, 1952). In all cases programs kept in storage.
During the mechanical, relay and in the beginning of electronic periods of development the digital calculations were considered only within technology aspect, but it scientific basics only began to grow.
First scientific works, lately put into computer science basis are the following. There are binary notation research by Leibnits in XVII century, algebra of logic by George Boole in XVII century, abstract, or Turing's mashine, invented in 1936, theoretical results by Shennon, Shestakov, Gavrilov (30-th of 20-th century), which unite electronics and logics. The firs stage of computer science was accomplished by digital computer design principles, called by Eckert and Newman (USA, 1946), and independently by S.Lebedev (USSR, 1948).
This time digital technics wasn't perfect and inferior to analog one, which already have mechanical integrators, devices for differencial equation solutions, etc.
However, at the next stage the calculus technics made unexampled breakthrough at the account of computer intellectualization as analog technics remains within calculations automation.
Digital technics development was concomitant by computer science formation. Computer sciense basics were replenished by digital automata theory, programming basics, artificial intelligence theory, computer design theory and computer technology. These component provided the formation of a new science, which is called "Computer Science" in the USA and "Informatics" in Europe. The big deposit to it's development was made by Ukrainian scientists (Victor Glushkov, Ekaterina Yushchenko, Zinoviy Rabinovich, Yuliya Kapitonova, Alexandr Letichevsky and others).
In the USSR, including Ukraine, "calculus technics" concept included as to call technical devices as for science of it's design.
Now for this purpose the term "informatics", that means the science about information receiving, transmitting storage and processing is used. In turn, this science is split to theoretical and applied branches. Theoretical branch learns the mathematical simulation of information processes. Applied branch includes design of computers, networks and multimedia, information technology computer processes, etc. The primary scientific basics of applied informatics are microelectronics and artificial intellect theory. If to concatenate two words "intellect" and "electronics", then a new word INELLELECTRONICS, more proper word for applied informatics will be get.
It worth to note, that we are at the very beginning of artificial intelligence, despite of many important achievements in this field and the great prospective of computer and "information human ability" confluence appears.
Unfortunately, Khrushchevs and Shchukarevs thinking mashines don't been saved. However, in article "Mechanization of thinking" by A.Shchukarev (Knowledge herald, № 12), the photo, detailed description and application recommendations are delivered.
So Alan Turing, who published his article "Is mashine able to think?" in 1950 had predecessors in Ukraine.
The best answer about mashine intellectual development belongs to Victor Glushkov:
"It's hardly to doubt, that more and more considerable part of the environment regularities will be conceived and applied by mashines in the future, but the human will always have top priority in thinking and conceiving processes. The truth of this conclusion is stipulated by history.
Humanity is not a simple sum of people. The intellectual and physical power is defined not only by sum of human muscles and brain, but also by human created material and cultural wealth. In this meaning, neither computer no set of computers, that are the results of human activity can't be more wise, than humanity as a whole, because at such evaluation computer is compared to the whole humanity with all tools and of course with computer being created.
It worth to note, that the priority of material and cultural values estimation belongs to human, so, the computer can't overcome the human also in this meaning.
So, as for pure information scope, then computers not only can, but also must overcome human ability, and in some narrow scopes it's the case now. But is social scope computers always remain no more, than human tools and assistants. (V.Glushkov. Thinking and cybernetics // Philosophy questions, 1963, v.1, in Russian).
As for microelectronics, the unit size now is coming to limit- 0.05 microns.
Nevertheless, there are not qualitively new and efficient elements, so, the term "intelelectronics" might to live for a long time.
As noted above, the general trend of computer development is artificial intellect units embedding. Computers, that are called so du to it's original destination-calculation automation are obtained another important application-to be human assistant in intellectual activity.
As for analog tools, the calculation precision remain low, it intellectualization failured and it defeat in competition with digitital tools. Time will show, is it temporary or ultimate situation.
The second half of the 20th century gave mankind the whole firework of outstanding achievements in digital electronic computer engineering -technological basis of information technology (IT). Thanks to computers, information in possess of the mankind, became a peculiar "raw material" for making a number of "products": new knowledge, administrative decisions, scientific forecasts, statistical data, various recommendations, conclusions, etc. Besides,in contrast to natural raw materials, information under usage never disappear but being supplemented with a new one, presenting an inexhaustible source of raw materials for brain work.
For progress in computerization and informatization the world community is obliged to millions of workers - scientists, engineers and technicians who built computers of a new generation and developed software for them and powerful information networks.
Although, there were quite few those who laid the foundation of the computer science and engineering. To their lot fell the hardest -to create something which has never existed before. There were among them scientists, engineers and mathematicians of many countries. The Second World war and the consequent decades of the "cold" war resulted in dissociation of scientists and securing their work, because computers (electronic computing machines ECM) were developed mostly for military goals.
As a consequence, names of computer developers and their scientific and creative contribution were known only to a small group of experts.
In countries of Western Europe and USA this gap in publications aboutformation and development of digital electronic computer engineering has been already bridged. There were published a lot of books, articles in periodicals, there were founded museums exhibiting computers of first generations.
In the former Soviet Union this process has slown down. Only in 90s of the 20th century after collapse of the Soviet Union, there started declassification of works accomplished in this field and an opportunity appeared to investigate and estimate an enormous creative contribution of scientists, engineers and workers to the world process of formation and development of computer engineering and information technology.
In hard post war years the efforts of these people and their teams made the former Soviet Union as one of the word leaders in building of computers.
In Ukraine the computer engineering in that period has developed in its own way, relying on outstanding scientific results of native scientists. Their creative heroic deed is not only worth of high appreciation, but also is a powerful basis for contemporary development of information technology.
In April 1914, four months before the First World War burst out, professor Aleksandr Shchukarev of the Kharkiv technological institute delivered a lecture called "Cognition and Thinking" in the Polytechnic Museum of Moscow. The lecture was accompanied by the demonstration of the "logical thinking machine", which was able to carry out mechanically the simple logical deductions on basis of initial semantic premises.
The lecture had a great resonance. Prof. A.Sokov, who was present at the lecture, responded with an article, prophetically called "Thinking Machine" ("Вокруг света", 1914, #18, in Russian). He wrote: "We have the calculating machines, which add up, subtract and multiply the millionth numbers when we turn the lever. Now it is obviously the time to have a logical machine which would be able to make the logical deductions when we press the appropriate buttons. This will save much time leaving the field of creativity, hypotheses, fantasies, inspiration to the human - that soul of life".
We should be reminded, that in 1914, when the lecture was given and the article was published, Alan Mathison Turing, the brilliant English mathematician, who published in 1950 a famous article "Computing machinety and intelligence" copied many times under the title "Can the Machine think?", was only two years old!
"The logical thinking machine" of Shchukarev was a kind of box 40 cm high and 25 cm long and wide. It included 16 bars, set in motion by pressing the buttons, which were situated on the initial data board (the board of semantic premises). The buttons acted upon the bars, the bars acted on illuminated indicator board, where the final result appeared in words. The results were the logical deductions of the initial semantic premises.
For instance, the logical deductions of such initial premises, as silver is metal; metals are conductors; conductors have free electrons; free electrons under the action of electric field create current; are the following:
- metal (for example, copper, but not silver) is a conductor, it has free electrons that create current under the action of electric field;
- neither silver, nor metal, but conductor (e.g. carbon) has free electrons that create current under the action of electric field;
- those substances that are neither silver nor metal and not a conductor (e.g. sulfur) do not have free electrons and do not conduct electric current.
Aleksandr Shchukarev was born in the family of the state official in Moscow in 1864. He graduated from the Moscow University. In 1909 he defended his doctor's thesis and in 1911 was invited to take a post of a chemistry professor in the Kharkov Technological Institute. Next 25 years of his teaching and creative career were connected with this institute, which later became a Kharkov Polytechnic Institute.
Besides chemistry, Aleksandr Shchukarev was interested in the processes of the logic and thinking. His relocation to Kharkov played a very significant role in the scientist's life. Professor Pavel Khrushchov (1849-1909), wellknow at the time in Russia, was working at the Kharkov University. His specialty was also chemistry. In the same way as Schukarev he was keen on the issue of thinking and methodology of science. In 1897 he had delivered a course of lectures on theory of thinking and logic elements for the faculty and teaching stuff of the Kharkov University. Perhaps, at that time he came up with the plan to reproduce the "logic piano" - a machine, invented by the Manchester University professor, mathematician William Stanly Jevons (1835-1882). Jevons' book "Principles of Science" was published in Russian in 1881, and Pavel Khrushchov obviously read it. Besides, in 1893 professor of mathematics of the Odessa University I.Sleshynsky published an article "The Logic Machine of Jevons" based on the materials of the book (Experimental Physics and Elementary Mathematics News. XV semester, #7)
William S.Jevons himself didn't attach practical significance to his invention. The "logic piano" was used only as a demonstration device for the course on logic. To all appearances, Prof. Khrushchov, who reprodu_ ced the machine of Jevons in the beginning of XX century or even earlier, also intended to use it only as a device at his logic and thinking lectures.
After Pavel Khrushchov's death in 1909 his widow handed out the machine to the Kharkov University.
It is unknown how O.Schukaryov had found the machine, engineered by P.Khrushov. Schukaryov himself writes in his article "Mechanization of Thinking" (1925) that he "inherited" it. O. Schukaryov was very much occupied with an educational activities giving lectures on issues of thinking and cognition in many cities of Ukraine, in Moscow and Leningrad. At first at his lectures the scientist demonstrated the machine, constructed by Khrushov, and then - his own one. In the above_mentioned article he also explains his contribution into improvement of the machine design: "I tried to create a bit modified model, introducing some improvements to the Jevons' construction. Although, these improvements were not of fundamental importance. I just have made this instrument smaller, completely metallic and eliminated some structural defects that were abundant in the device of Jevons. The next step forward was connecting a special illuminated screen, to which the results of machine's work are transmitted and appeared not in the conventional symbolic form, as in the Jevons' machine, but in a usual verbal form".
However the main achievement of A.Shchukarev was that, unlike Jevons and Khrushchov, he took the machine not only as an ordinary teaching instrument, but introduced it to his listeners as a technical device, which aim is to mechanize aspects of thinking that can be formalized. His article "Mechanization of Thinking. The Jevons Machine" starts with the history of technical devices for calculation: abacus (the counting frame of ancient Greeks and Romans), the machine of Pascal, which was used for summing operations, the arithmetic device of Leibniz, a slide-ruler and analog differentiating machines for solving equations. A.Shchukarev describes mechanization of logical formal processes as a next step in the development of calculating devices that can help people essentially in their intellectual work. In the article he gives an example of the predictions for the electric properties of the chemical elements oxides in water solutions. With a help of the machine eight different variants of electrolytes and none-electrolytes solutions were found. "All these deductions are absolutely correct, - the scientist writes, - however, human thought was too much confused with these conclusions".
In the 1920th A.Shchukarev's expressions got a really negative evaluation from some of his colleagues, likewise later in the USSR cybernetics was proclaimed a pseudo-science from the very beginning of its formation. In 1926 professor I.Orlov wrote in the magazine "Under the Banner of Marxism": "Pretensions of professor Shchukarev, who demonstrates a school device of Jevons as a "thinking" apparatus, and the naive amusement of his audience, are comical. He tries to convince us that thinking process has a formal nature and can be mechanized". We should pay due to the magazine: its editorial staff disagreed with the article author's opinions.
A.Shchukarev gave his last lecture in Kharkov at the end of 1920ts. He handed out his machine to the mathematics department of the Kharkov University. Later its track was lost.
In the history of information technologies development in Ukraine and in the former USSR A.Shchukarev' name is connected with an important step of the information processing engineering. It is his active propaganda of the importance and possibility of the mechanization (further - automation) of the parts of logical thinking that can be formalized.
Founders of calculating devices had been using decimal scale of notation for more then 400 (!) years, until the beginning of XX century. Figures were embodied with the help of a wheel with ten jags, and numbers - with a set of wheels.
In XVII century the simplest devices for summation, subtraction and multiplication of numbers (Pascal and Leibniz machines) were created in such way. They have used from 8 to 13 wheels. In XIX century the English scientist Charles Babbage projected and tried to create the "analytical engine", the first calculating machine with program management, which had five devices: arithmetic operational, memory, input and output (resembling the first computers). The arithmetic device and memory were designed on the basis of more then 50 thousand notch wheels!
In the middle of XX century, after the transfer from decimal notation to binary one, electromagnetic relays and electronic tubes begun to be used for this purpose (almost at the same time). Then it was memory and logical elements that became widespread, in which ferrite cores were used. Gradually, these rather bulky and unreliable mediums were replaced by the elements based on transistors, which improved and changed into integral schemes that included, at first, thousands and then - millions of components.
Transistors don't have any serious rivals for 50 years of their use. The question arises as to who was the discoverer of physical effects, assumed as a basis of transistor. It is one more blank spot in the history of information technologies in Ukraine. It is connected with work of an outstanding Ukrainian physicist Vadim Lashkarev (1903-1974). He should have received by right the Nobel Prize in physics for transistor discovery, which was awarded to American scientists John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain in 1956.
As far back as in 1941 Vadim Lashkarev published the articles "Investigation of the locking layers with the hot probe technique" and "Influence of admixtures on photovoltaic effect in copper hemioxide" (joint authorship with K.Kosonogova). He ascertained that sides of the "locking layer", situated parallel to the boundary "copper_copper hemioxide", had opposite current carriers charge. This phenomenon was called p-n junction (p-positive, n-negative). Vadim Lashkarev also discovered mechanism of injection, the major effect on which basis semiconductor diodes and transistors act.
The initial report about the semiconducting transistor_amplifier in the American press appeared in July 1948, seven years after the Lashkarev's article. The inventors - American scientists Bardeen and Brattain - created a so-called point-contact transistor on the basis of n-type germanium crystal. They received the first encouraging result in the end of 1947. However the device conducted unstably and its behavior was unpredictable. That was why the point-contact transistor wasn't used for long in practice.
In 1951 in the USA Shockley created an n-p-n type plane transistor, which was more reliable. The transistor consisted of three germanium layers of n, p and n type, 1 cm wide and was absolutely unlike the future tiny and then - invisible to the eye components of the chips.
In a few years significance of the American scientists invention was recognized by Nobel Prize. Perhaps, the beginning of the "cold war" or the "iron curtain" obstructed Vadim Lashkarev from becoming the Nobel Prize laureate. His interest in semi_conductors wasn't accidental. From 1939 and till the end of his life scientist consistently and fruitfully investigated their physical qualities. Further to his two pioneering works, in 1950 Lashkarev together with V.Lyashenko published an article "Electronic State on the Semi-Conductor's Surface" (Jubilee Collection to academician Abram Joffe 70th birthday, 1959), in which they described the study results of surface phenomenon in semi-conductors. Later those results became the basis for work of integrated circuits on field-effect transistors (FET).
In the beginning of 1950s production of point_contact transistors was organized at the Institute of Physics, AS Ukr.SSR, under the leadership of Vadim Lashkarev. The scientific school in the semi-conductors physics field formed by Lashkarev, became one of the leading in the USSR. In the recognition of its outstanding results in 1960 the Institute of Semi-Conductors, AS Ukr.SSR, was created and Vadim Lashkarev was appointed as its head.
The scientist was born and graduated from the university in Kiev, later he worked in Leningrad. Unfortunately, his career started in the period of repressions. He was arrested and exiled to Archangelsk, where he served as a chairman of the physics department at the medical institute till 1939. The next 35 years of his life were the most fruitful and were connected with Kiev. Vadim Lashkarev trained a constellation of successors, who successfully continue the research, started by their teacher.
V.Lashkarev is a pioneer of information technologies in Ukraine and in the former USSR regarding the field of transistor element base for computing devices. It is fair to consider him one of the first world transistor microelectronics founders. In 2002 NASU Institute of Semiconductors, founded by Vadim Lashkarev, was named after him.
In December 1976 the academic council conference of the Institute of Cybernetics Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR was devoted to the 25 years of exploitation of the first in the continental Europe Small Electronic Computing machine (MESM), which was created in the Institute of Electrical Engineering AS Ukr.SSR under the Sergei Lebedev leadership (1902-1974).
The head of the Institute academician Victor Glushkov evaluated Lebedev's innovative and creative achievements in the following words: "Independently of foreign scientists, S.Lebedev elaborated the construction principles for the computer with program that can be stored in operating memory. Under his supervision the first computer in the continental Europe was created, important scientific and technical tasks were resolved in the short terms and the Soviet school of programming was founded. The MESM description became the first country textbook on computer engineering. The MESM served as prototype for the Big Electronic Computing Machine BESM. The laboratory of S.Lebedev is the Computing Center organizational germ, that later transformed into the Institute of Cybernetics".
The statement that S.Lebedev elaborated the construction principles for the computer with a program stored in memory independently of western scientists, expressed by V.Glushkov, is fundamentally important. Namely, storage of the program in the operating memory was the final step in the first computers development. In western countries this stage is linked to the name of John von Neumann. And as the words of V.Glushkov are supported by the series of archival documents and his colleagues' statements, we can assert that Lebedev was a developer of the stored_program computer principle as well as John von Neumann.
On January 8, 1951, at the Institute of Electrical Engineering and the Institute of Heat and Power Engineering, AS Ukr.SSR, academic council private session (minutes #1) Lebedev reported on MESM and gave the following answer to the question from the audience: "I have got the data on 18 machines, elaborated by Americans. This data is a kind of advertising material and does not include any facts about the construction of the machines", and then: "It is really hard to use the foreign achievements, because the published information is very limited."
In a short note, sent to the Academy of Science of the USSR in the beginning of 1957, S.Lebedev states: "In 1948-1949 I elaborated the main construction principles of such machines. Taking into account their significance for national economy and being aware of the fact that there is no experience of such machine building and exploitation in the USSR, I decided to create a small computing machine, which would be used to investigate the main construction principles, to check the problem solving techniques and to accumulate the experience of exploitation".
Not by chance MESM was deciphered at first as "Model Electronic Computing Machine", and later the word "model" was replaced by the word "small".
In the above-mentioned minutes S.Lebedev pointed out: "According to the foreign literature data, the projecting and construction of the machine last for 5-10 years. We intend to build a machine in 2-year term."
Incredibly, but scientist managed to realize this project in such a short-term. The work was started in 1948, and MESM began functioning in the end of 1950. In 1951 MESM was handed over for regular commission. It was the only machine of such class at the time and during 1952 it was used to solve the most important problems: calculation fragments for the thermonuclear processes, space flights and jet engineering, power lines, etc.
The experience of MESM construction and exploitation made it possible for Lebedev to create in the next two years a Big Electronic Computing Machine - BESM.
In the article "At the Cradle of the first Computer" Lebedev called MESM a "firstling of the Soviet computer engineering". He described BESM in the following words: "When the machine was created, it was comparable to the latest American models. It was a triumph of ideas of its creators."
The main principles of MESM construction can be found in the previously classified book "Small Electronic Computing Machine" authored by S.Lebedev, L.Dashevsky and Е.Shkabara (1952). Here are those principles:
1. Machine uses binary notation.
2. Machine consists of five devices: arithmetic, memory, operational, input and output.
3. Computing program encoded and kept in the memory, as well as data.
4. Calculations implemented automatically on the basis of the memory-stored program.
5. Besides arithmetic operations, machine implements the logical ones: comparisons, conditional and unconditional transitions.
6. Memory built on the hierarchy principle.
7. Calculations done by digital tasks solving techniques.
At the 1955 conference in Darmstadt Lebedev's report about BESM caused a sensation. The machine, unknown outside the USSR, was recognized as the most fast-acting in Europe.
According to the references of Lebedev's contemporaries, the idea to create the digital computing machine came to his mind before the war, when scientist lived in Moscow.
Professor Anatoliy Netushyl, who had graduated from the Moscow Energy Institute several years before the war, recalls: My research resulted in the Ph.D. thesis "Analysis of the trigger elements of fast-acting impulse counters". It is known that later electronic triggers became the basic elements of the digital computer devices. From the very beginning of the work in 1939 till its defense, S.Lebedev treated my research with attention and approval. He had agreed to serve as opponent during the thesis defense, which took place in the end of 1945. At that time nobody suspected that S. Lebedev was elaborating the idea of digital computing machine creation."
Scientist's wife Alice Lebedeva used to say that in autumn of 1941, when attacks of fascist air forces plunged Moscow into the darkness, her husband closed himself in the bathroom, where he could safely switch on the light, and was writing for hours in his thick notebook some strange circles and sticks (zeros and ones, which are used in the binary notation).
Doctor of technical science Vsevolod Bardyzh, who was Lebedev's deputy in the laboratory, where BESM was created, recalls that during the conversation with a student S.Lebedev mentioned that, if not the war, he would have started working on the digital computer construction much earlier.
We should be reminded that in 1939-1947 there were no publications about binary notation, principles of arithmetic operations with binary code and computer structure yet. Decimal notation was used in the machines known at that time, which were the relay computing machine Mark-1 (USA, 1944) and the electronic computing machine ENIAС (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, USA, 1946). Namely during the pre-war and early post-war years S.Lebedev elaborated the principles of operations with binary notation and the structure and architecture of MESM. Its creation was a really hard task, but the scientist managed to solve it brilliantly.
In the archive of the Institute of Electrodynamics (formerly electrical engineering), AS Ukr.SSR, there is a folder containing documents about MESM development. Somebody's caring hand wrote prophetic words on it: "Store eternally."
The rise of a program-stored computers in the end of 1940s was the final and very important step in the development of digital computer engineering. Only few key scientists in the world were involved into this process. They were John von Neumann (Hungarian by birth, 1903-1957), John W.Mauchly (1907-1980) and J.Presper Eckert (1919-1995) from the USA, Alan Turing (1912-1954), Tom Kilburn (1921-2001) and Maurice V.Wilkes (1913) from the United Kingdom, Sergei Lebedev (1902-1974) and Isaac Brouk (1902-1974) from the USSR.
Each of them made a contribution into creation of the first computers and the emerging of the Information Technologies. Alan Turing in his 1936 article "On Com_ putable Numbers" proved the possibility to calculate mechanically any algorithm that is solvable. A hypothetical universal machine, which he proposed for this purpose, was called "Turing machine" and was able to memorize the order of actions during the algorithm performance.
In 1946 John Mauchly and Presper Eckert constructed computer ENIAC, which was operated by a program with commands performed by the mechanical switches. It took too much time and limited calculations automation. The scientists realized it and implemented stored program, while projecting the next computer EDVAC. A famous scientist John von Neumann started collaborating with them at the final stage of ENIAC construction and EDVAC projecting. At that time Neumann participated in the Manhattan project on atomic bomb creation and was interested in elaborating effective computer device for his calculations.
Being a brilliantly educated scientist, an outstanding mathematician managed to summarize the experience, accumulated during the machine elaboration process. He described it as the main principles of computer architecture in the 1945 report introduced to the public by Herman H.Goldstine. These principles were used to build the computer IAC under the direction of von Neumann. Materials of the report hadn't been published in press until the end of 1950s, but they were transmitted to several companies in the US and Great Britain. The principles and structure of the computer were called after von Neumann, though Mauchly and Eckert were the real inventors and S. Lebedev realized the same principles in his MESM independently from these scientists. That happened due to von Neumann's popularity. At that time MECM still remained classified and the western scientists were not aware of the brilliant achievement of Lebedev. It should be mentioned, that Neuman's machine IAC started working a year after MESM creation.
In 1948 University of Manchester scientists Frederic C.Williams and Tom Kilburn constructed a primitive computer called Baby. They used CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) for data and problem solving program recording. The scientists were the first to prove that it was possible to store data and programs in the machine's common memory. A year later Maurice Wilkes, who worked at the Cambridge University and attended lectures of Mauchly and Eckert in 1946, managed to leave his teachers behind. In 1949 he created the first computer EDSAC with a stored program memory capacity, which, in contrast to "Baby", was able to solve more then just test tasks.
The work of Lebedev during those years is described above. In 1950-1952 I.Brouk created the first computer M-1 in Russia.
The later fate of "magnificent seven" was different. During the Second World War Alan Turing participated in construction of the "Colossus" computer, which was used to decipher the radiograms of the German Wehrmacht. One of his colleagues noted: "Of course it was not Turing who won the war. But we could have lost it without him". His early death disabled this genius scientist from complete realization of his intentions.
John von Neumann had a similar fate. He died at the age of 53 without seeing the second computer, projected under his direction. The computer was called "JOHNIAC" after the scientist.
John Mauchly and Presper Eckert went on working on the computer design. In 1951 they managed to create the first serial computer UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer) in the USA. In 1952 they finished working on EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer). Later they headed computer companies they founded.
Tom Kilburn and Maurice Wilkes brilliantly succeeded in their scientific efforts. In 1953 the first model computer on point transistors elaborated by Kilburn was tested. The work was finished in 1955. There were 200 transistors and 1300 germanium diodes used in the machine. In 1960s there was created the quite perfect computer ATLAS under the direction of Tom Kilburn. Virtual memory and multiple program usage in the machine had a great response among the computer designers.
Maurice Wilkes became an outstanding scientist. Another vacuum tube computer "EDSAC-2" with microprogramming control was created under his direction and presented in 1951. Later on he worked in the field of programming and computer construction automation. He laid the basis for multiprogrammed functioning of the computers, consulted many projects and obtained the recognition as a prominent scientist of the present. Today ninety-year-old Maurice Wilkes is the honorary professor in Cambridge and a consultant of the one of the biggest American companies (ITT). Presidium of the Ukrainian Academy of Science granted him the rank of honorable doctor of the Academy in 1998.
Lebedev's interest in the digital computer engineering was not accidental. During the first 20 years of his creative career (until 1946) Lebedev worked in the field of power engineering and he constantly faced the necessity to do complex calculations. He successfully tried to automate them using analog devices, but quickly realized that the abilities of these techniques were limited.
His scientific work started with the vacuum tube machines that carried out ten thousands operations. At the time they were supercomputers. Computers M40 and M50, created in 1958 and 1959, were the most fast-acting computers in the world. With the advent of semiconductors and magnetic elements S.Lebedev switched to the elaboration of the second generation supercomputers. The 1967 BESM-6, with a million of operations per second efficiency, was manufactured for 17 years. The best computer facilities in the USSR were equipped with this machine. The BESM-6 took a worthy place in the world computer building. In 1972 London Museum of Science bought the machine to save it for the history. Lebedev's bright scientific career was concluded with construction of the supercomputers based on integrated circuits (microchip) devices that managed millions operations per second. Two of them after update are still in use in anti-missile and anti-airplane defense systems. Every computer was a new step in computer engineering. Every next one was more productive, more reliable and suitable in exploitation. The main principle of machines construction was paralleling of the calculation process. In MESM and BESM they used arithmetic parallel devices for this purpose. In M-20, M-40 and M-50 external devices worked in parallel with a processor. Conveyer calculation method (Lebedev called it water-pipe) was introduced into BESM-6. In the following computer models they used multiple processors and other improvements. All the machines projected under Lebedev's direction were on big serial production in the USSR.
The pioneering work of Lebedev contributed into the formation of powerful computer industry. The Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering Academy of Science of the USSR, headed by Lebedev, became the leading one in the country. In 1950s - 1970s its achievements were as significant as ones of the American company IBM.
Characterizing scientific attainments of S.Lebedev, the President of National Academy of Science of Ukraine Boris Paton stressed out: "We would always be proud that in our very Academy of Science of Ukraine, in our beloved Kiev, the Lebedev's talent unfolded to become a prominent scientist in the field of computer engineering and mathematics, and the largest computer-based systems. He founded the famous school of thought in the field of computer science in Kiev. V. Glushkov carried on his work. And now we have productive V. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics, NASU, one among the largest in the world.
One of Lebedev's wonderful qualities was his care of and trust to the youth. He put them in charge of solving the most difficult problems. He possessed an outstanding pedagogical talent. A lot of his disciples became prominent scientists. They developed their own scientific schools.
His whole life is a heroic example of the devotion to science and to his people. He always aspired to combine noble science with practice and engineering tasks.
He lived and worked in the period of stormy development of electronics, computer engineering, rocket production, space exploration and atomic energy. Being a patriot of his country, Lebedev participated in the biggest projects of I.Kurchatov, S.Korolyov and M.Keldysh, who created a reliable shield for the Motherland. In all these works the computers constructed by Lebedev played a special role.
His prominent works will enrich the treasury of the world science and technology, and his name will stand together with the names of the greatest scientists forever."
Due to the Lebedev's extraordinary modesty and classified nature of the significant part of his works, it is very little known in the western countries about this genius scientists. Until the end of 1990s there were almost no substantial publications. In the 1995 book "Computer Pioneers" by John Lee, which contains over 200 biographies of the scientists, Lebedev's name is not mentioned.
Only on 95th birthday anniversary his achievements were recognized abroad. He was recognized as a pioneer of computer engineering with a medal from the International Computer Society. Its legend states: "Sergei Alekseyevich Lebedev 1902-1974. Developer and designer of the first computer in the USSR. Founder of the Soviet computer building".
"I want to say again and again, and will repeat all my life that Victor Mikhaylovich Glushkov is annormally talented man, and in some fields, purely scientific, by my opinion, is a genius, who made an incredible contribution to the science, technics, community life of our country. It is impossible to overstimate this."1
The significance of scientist's work is not always recognized fully by contemporaries. Real evaluation appears much later, when the scientific results and the expressed ideas are verified by the time. The prominent contribution of Victor Glushkov (1923-1982) into mathematics, cybernetics and computer engineering was highly appreciated when he was still alive. But with the time passing by, it became evident that in the process of his creative activity he managed to stay ahead of time and oriented his Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, which he founded and supervised, for the transition from computer engineering to computer science, and then - to information technologies (IT). V.Glushkov became a founder of this incredibly important field of science and technologies in Ukraine and in the former USSR. He have trained the necessary cohort of experts and created a powerful scientific school in this field.
The term "information technologies" appeared in science in the last years of XX century. Earlier the terms "informatics" or "computer engineering" were used, that defined narrower problem circle. Being high technologies, information technologies cover wide range of scientific, design, technological and industrial directions: design and construction of computers, periphery devices, elemental base, network equipment, system software, elaboration and creation of automated and automatic numeric systems of different destination and their application software. All these directions have been developed since 1960-70s in the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, created in 1962 by V.Glushkov.
Outstanding scientific achievements of Glushkov's school in the field of IT became the foundation for the further development of scientific schools in the Institute under the direction of his followers. They developed diverse directions of IT. History of main directions of digital, analog and cybernetic computer devices is reflected in this book.2
After S.Lebedev left for Moscow, his colleagues in Kiev, among whom were L.Dashevsky, E.Shkabara, S.Pogrebinsky and others, under the supervision of academician B.Gnedenko, director of the Institute of Mathematics, AS Ukr.SSR, where Lebedev's laboratory was placed, started to elaborate computer "Kiev" with electronic tubes on magnetic cores. The machine "Kiev" yielded to the characteristics of new Lebedev's computer M20, but was surely up-to-date. They used for the first time the "address programming language", which simplified the programming.
In 1956 V.Glushkov took the former laboratory of Lebedev. Under his supervision the elaboration of computer "Kiev" was successfully finished. This computer was in long use in the Computer Center of the Academy of Science of Ukraine, created on the base of the laboratory. The second machine of such kind was bought by the United Institute of Nuclear Investigations in Dubna, where it was exploited for a while. In 1962 the Computer Center was transformed into the Institute of Cybernetics, which is now called after its founder academician V.Glushkov.
At the Computer Center and later at the Institute of Cybernetics under the leadership of V.Glushkov abstract and applied automata theory intensively developed as the theoretical basis for computer design and construction. The scientific works published on probabilistic automata, automata functioning reliability, economic and anti-noise coding issues. The connection between the automata theory and formal grammar theory was established. The new methods of automata analysis and synthesis were elaborated. Thus, the theoretic basis for computer design and construction was formed. In 1964 academician V.Glushkov was awarded the Lenin prize for his achievements in the field of digital automata.
Following computer "Kiev" first in Ukraine (and in the USSR) transistor based control computer "Dnepr" was developed at the Computer Center of the AS Ukr.SSR. The idea of its creation belongs to Victor Glushkov. Boris Malinovsky (author of this book) was the chief designer of the machine. The machine was manufactured in record short time, only in three years, and in July 1961 it was installed at the selected factories. At that time this result was the world speed record of elaboration and implementation of the control machine. Explaining the factors of success, V.Glushkov recalled: "In parallel with "Dnepr" creation we had carried out a serious preparatory work on the machine utilization to control difficult technological processes together with several Ukrainian companies. Together with the employees of the Dzerzhinsky Metallurgical plant (Dneprodzerjynsk) we investigated control process over steel smelting in Bessemer converters, together with the workers of Soda plant in Slovyansk worked on carbonization column etc. I initiated the first experiment in Europe on remote control over Bessemer process, that lasted for several days in the regime of Master consultant.
The "Dnepr" machine was used to automate ship projecting works at Nikolaev "61 Communards" plant. Later we found out that the Americans had started earlier working on universal transistor control machine RW300, which was similar to "Dnepr", but put it into production in June 1961, at the same time with us. It was that very moment when we managed to reduce to zero the gap between the level of American technology development and ours in one very important field. Besides, our computer was the first national transistor machine (if not to take into account specialized machines).
Later it was verified that the machine beautifully tolerates different climatic conditions, vibration, etc. When during the joint space mission "Soyuz - Apollo" it was necessary to equip the show-room in the Space flights operational centre, after long discussions computer "Dnepr" was chosen. Two machines operated the big screen, on which the flight and docking was reproduced."
This first serial transistor control machine also broke the record of industrial longevity, as it was in production for ten years (1961-1971). In other cases serious modernization was usually needed after five-six years.
"Dnepr" machines were used in many industrial processes pioneering digital control systems, complicated physical experiments, during the new sophisticated technology testings. The machines were supplied not only to national users, but were exported to many states of Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA or Comcon).
It should be mentioned, that the specialized plant construction in Ukraine was not included into the USSR seven-year plan (1958-1965). The first "Dnepr" computers were produced by the Kiev plant "Radiopribor". V.Glushkov promoted construction of the plant for computers and digital control machines assembly ("Electronmash" now) in Kiev at the same time with "Dnepr" development. Government supported this initiative. Thus, "Dnepr" creation stimulated the construction of a big computer plant.
The creators of the digital control machine "Dnepr" and the control systems on its basis (B.Malinovsky - principal investigator and chief executive officer, participants M.Kotlyarevsky, G.Mykhaylov, N.Pavlov, A.Kukharchuk, Y.Mitulinsky and others) were nominated for a Lenin prize. However, work was so innovative, that its meaning were not comprehended by authorities, and the nomination was called off in the same way it was done with MESM in 1952.
In 1968 the Institute of Cybernetics in collaboration with the Kiev computers and control machines plant elaborated and produced a small series of transistor computer "Dnepr-2". It was designed to solve a wide range of problems, such as planning, economic, controling over industrial processes and difficult physical experiments. V.Glushkov and A.Stogniy led the project; A.Kukharchuk was a principal designer. The machine consisted of a computing part "Dnepr-21" and a control complex "Dnepr-22". B.Malinovsky supervised works on "Dnepr-22". The machine "Dnepr-2" had comprehensive software that was supplied to the customer. Unfortunately, "Dnepr-2" production was soon stopped with the resolution of Ministry of Instrumentmaking of the USSR.
In 1959 V.Glushkov decided to create the machine for engineering calculations. Such machine called "Promin" was elaborated in the Institute of Cybernetics and its SDB. In 1963 its serial production was started at the Severodonetsk computer plant. The computer "Promin" was a breakthrough in the world practice. It included many technical innovations, particularly memory on metallic cards. But the main thing was that it was the first machine with a so-called piggyback firmware control (later V.Glushkov received an author's certificate for it).
Some time later firmware control was used in the machine for engineering calculations MIR-1, which was created after the "Promin" computer (1965). In 1967 MIR-1 was exhibited in London where it was bought by the American company IBM - the largest in the USA supplier of about 80% of all computer technique for the capitalist world. It was the first and unfortunately the last time when the American company bought a Soviet computer.
MIR-1 creators were awarded with the USSR State prize (V.Glushkov, Y.Blagoveshensky, A.Letichevsky, V.Losev, I.Molchanov, S.Pogrebinsky, and A.Stogniy). In 1969 improved computer MIR-2, then - MIR-3 were manufactured. These machines had no competitors for the speed of analytic conversion. For example, MIR-2 successfully competed with universal computers of ordinary structure that rated many times higher in speed and memory capacity. Namely, on this machine for the first time in the history of national machine-building, they realized the dialog mode of work, where they used display with light pen. Each of these machines was a step forward creation of an intellectual machine, along a strategic direction in computer development proposed by V.Glushkov.
At that time it was considered that machine language should be as simple as possible, and the rest would be done by programs. "Address language" for the "Kiev" computer designed by V.Korolyuk and E.Yushchenko was of such kind.
Designing machines MIR, V.Glushkov set another aim - create machine language similar to the human one (meaning the mathematic, not the spoken language). Such language "Analitic" was created by O.Letichevsky and supported by the original internal system of interpretation. MIR machines were used in all parts of the USSR.
In the end of 1960s the elaboration of the computer "Ukraine" was started in the institute under the scientific supervison of V.Glushkov. Z.Rabinovich was appointed as chief designer; his deputies were A.Stogniy and I.Molchanov. It was a next step in highly productive universal computers development, as these machines should use internal language of high level. The elaboration of the "Ukraine" machine became an important landmark in the development of Glushkov's scientific school. The ideas proposed in the project took the lead over numerous innovations used in the American universal computers of the 1970s. Unfortunately, the machine was not built.
In 1974 at the IFIP congress V.Glushkov presented report on fractal computer with new principles of computer system organization (co-authors V.Myasnikov, I.Ignatiev, V.Torgashev). He expressed an idea that only the elaboration of fundamentally new up-to-date architecture for the computer systems, not similar to Neumann's one, would help to build supercomputers with unlimited potential for productivity increase and hardware improvements. The further research demonstrated that complete and straight-out realization of the fractal computers construction principles and brain-like structures was premature due to electronic technology level of that time. "It was necessary to find the compromise solutions, which would mean the transition to the brain-like structures of the future and a clever departure from the principles of John von Neumann" (abstract from Glushkov's report at the 1979 conference in Novosibirsk). Such solutions were found by the genius scientist and tested as a basis for original structure of a highly productive computer, which he called macro-conveyor.
Unfortunately, V.Glushkov was not destined to see the macro_conveyor computers ES-1766 and ES-2701 created on his ideas that, in the opinion of the State commission, had no analogues in the world. In the beginning of 1980 these were the most powerful computer systems in the USSR.
Penza plant of computing machines (Russia) was selected for serial manufacturing of ES-1766 and ES-2701. Unfortunately, these machines so needed by the science and technology and that could compete with the best American ones, were produced only in a small lot.
During the 1960s-1970s Institute of Cybernetics, AS Ukr.SSR, directed by V.Glushkov elaborated and implemented to the industry a whole set of mini-computers, specialized computers and programmed keyboard computers. Among them: "Neva" for the digital telephone stations, family of "Iskra-125" computers, specialized computers "Mriya", "Chayka", "Moscow". "Scorpio", "Romb", "Orion", computers for spectral analysis, etc (A. Kukharchuk, G. Kornienko, B. Mudla, S. Zabara).
In the beginning of 1980s a unique family of on-board specialized computers was created. They were used to control and operate spacecrafts without preliminary trajectory calculation. These machines were MIG-1, MIG-11, MIG-12 and MIG-13. Their creators G.Golodnyak and V.Petrunek received the USSR State award together with others. A complex of specialized computers "Express", "Ekspan", "Pirs", "Cross-1", "Cross-2", "Course", "Bark", etc., for premooring and preflight tests of water planes, sea crafts, winged ships, for complex extreme nautical tests of the Navy ships, for control and diagnostics of aircrafts was elaborated. In 1987 the authors B.Mudla, V.Dianov, M.Dianov, V.Berdnikov, A.Kanivets and O.Shalebko received the Ukr.SSR State Award for the elaboration of scientific theory and creation of the complex of devices for multi-channel information processing during the new comprehensive technical objects testing.
Here should be specifically mentioned unique specialized complex "Delta" for telemetric information collecting/processing and control over aerospace experiments (authors - V.Dianov, M.Dianov, A.Kanivets, I.Kutnyak and others). This complex was created for the system of Galley comet images receiving and processing in the "Vega" international project. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe it was also used in the urgently created situation center. It made possible to forecast with high accuracy the process of radioactive nuclides contamination of the Dnipro basin and to assume appropriate measures on time.
During the 1960s - 1970s in the Institute of Cybernetics and its SDB over 30 original computers of different applications, which had no foreign analogues, were created and implemented for industrial production. In 1980s the N.Amosov laboratory developed first in the USSR neural computer and a family of self-operating computer robots (N.Amosov, E.Kussul, A.Kasatkin, L.Kasatkina).
It is impossible to elaborate modern computers without automated systems for research and development. Using Glushkov's theoretical works Institute of Cybernetics unfolded the wide range of research and created several unique "Project" systems ("Project-1", "Project-ES", "Project-MIM", "Project-MVK") for the automated design of computers with appropriate software. At first they were implemented on the "Kiev" computer, then - on M-20, M-220 and BESM-6 (with the total capacity of 2 million machine commands). Then they were converted to the United computer systems. "Project-1", carried out on M-220 and BESM-6, represented a parted specialized program-technical complex with its own operating systems and specialized programming system. It used for the first time in the world automated algorithmic design phase with possibility for optimization (V.Glushkov, O.Letichevsky, Y.Kapitonova). In the framework of these systems it became possible to elaborate a new technology for the complicated programs design (method of formalized technical tasks by O.Letichevsky and Y.Kapitonova). "Project" systems were created as experimental ones, they were used to test real design methods and protocols for hardware and software computer components. With time these methods became conventional in dozens of organizations, which worked on elaboration of the computer techniques. The Ministry of Radio Industry of the USSR was a major customer. Developed systems served as prototype for the real technological documentation discharge lines for computer chips production in many organizations of the former USSR.
"Project-1" system is closely connected with the system of design automation and production of Big Integral Scheems (BIS) with a help of lithographi technology. In the department headed by V.Derkach (one of the first graduate students of V.Glushkov) computers "Kiev-67" and "Kiev-70" were created. They were used to operate electronic beam during its work on the production of BIS that led to the record parameters in the microelectronics scheems. The design automation systems "Project" had the communication interface with "Kiev-67" and "Kiev-70" machines, which made possible to implement complicated electronic beam control programs during the overlay and graphical processing of the linings.
The works of V.Glushkov, V.Derkach and Y.Kapitonova on the computer design automation were distinguished by the USSR State award in 1977.
Interview of I.V.Sergiyenko, Director General Of the Cybernetic Center and the V.M.Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics NAS of Ukraine. December 1, 2007.
"The history of the Institute begins in 1957, when Computing Center of the Academy of Science Uks.SSR was established and transformed in 1962 into the Institute of Cybernetics entrusted to develop computer technique and cybernetics, and implement them into all branches of the economy, science and military.
Today Institute employs over 400 researchers, among them 15 members of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 55 doctors and over 200 candidates of science. Among Institute employees are known scientists academicians of NASU V.Deyneka, Yu.Yermoliev, I.Kovalenko, O.Palagin, I.Sergienko, corresponding members of the NASU V.Boyun, I.Voytovich, V.Zadiraka, Yu.Krivonos, O.Letichevsky, B.Malinovsky, T.Marianovich, I.Parasiuk, O.Perevozchikova, V.Skopetskiy, A.Chikriy.
There are few well know in Ukraine and abroad scientific schools created at the Institute. Mathematic cybernetics and theory of computers and computing systems, theory of optimization and systemic analysis, mathematical modeling, mathematical theory of reliability, programming theory, etc. Specialized scientific councils for candidate and doctor thesis defense, aspirantura and doctorantura provide training for the specialists in the major fields of information technologies. For the time of existence there were around 200 doctors and over 1000 candidates trained, over 400 monographs and tens of thousands of articles published, hundreds of patents and certificates received.
The branches of the Department of Computational Mathematics, Kiev National T.G.Shevchenko University, the Department of Automated Systems of Information Processing and Control, National Technical University "Kiev Polytechnic Institute", the Department of Theoretical Cybernetics and Optimal Operation Methods, Moscow Physical-Technical Institute (Russia) function at the Institute. Three international journals are published: "Cybernetics and System Analysis", "Control systems and machines" (in collaboration with the International research and Teaching Center on Informational Technology and Systems, NASU and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine), "Problems of Control and Informatics" (in collaborating with the Institute of Cosmic Research, NASU and NCA of Ukraine), annals of research works "Computer mathematics", "Theory of optimal solutions", "Computer devices, systems and networks", "Cybernetics and computing techniques" (in collaboration with the International research and Teaching Center on Informational Technology and Systems, NASU and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine). Institute library consists of near 300 thousand units.
Institute relates to the many leading research centers of the world, for example Russian, other countries of CIS, USA, England, Germany, France, Poland, Japan, North Korea, China. Institute conducted over 50 international contract and grant projects. Institute organizes annual International Conferences on informatics and is represented on many scientific forums all over the world. Scientific achievements of our scientists awarded by many USSR and Ukraine state awards, also by awards named after outstanding scientists.
The institute is a main organization for the Cybernetic Center NASU, National Committee of Ukraine on Informatics, Scientific Councils on "Cybernetics" and "Intellectual informational technologies" NASU, Ukrainian Informatics Federation that is member of the international organization on informatics CEPIS functioning in the EU.
Today Institute conducts research in the fields established by its creators and also in the fields dictated by modern necessity like systemic analysis, mathematical modeling, information protection, optimization, general control theory, methods and devices for intellectual operational systems construction for the different levels and specificities, general computer theory and perspective computing technologies, artificial intelligence, perspective mathematical systems of general and applied destination, new informational technologies, fundamental and applied problems of society informatization.
Recent advent of the Institute is creation of two supercomputers in 2004 - highly effective computing cluster systems. They allow to solve principally new tasks of trans-computational complexity in the fields of science, economics, ecology, agriculture, technique, safety, space, etc. They already used for practical issues in economics, environmental protection (radionuclide contamination), satellite information pro_ cessing, weather forecasting, crops predictions, information protection in computer and telecommunication networks, etc.
In 2006 those supercomputers will become a part of the URAN network. In collaboration with National technical University "KPI" this network functions expended for the needs of NASU, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and other interested organizations and institutions.
In addition, recently Institute elaborated complex of highly efficient computer means for the diverse problems solving including important objects protection, prevention of unsanctioned access to the computer information, cardio-vascular diseases diagnostics, etc.(projects were conducted with significant financial support from the German and Chinese firms). Thus, information technology elaborated for recording, processing and analysis of the super weak magnetic fields produced by human organs, studying of which helps to understand electro-physiological processes in human body and register fluctuations from the norm and diagnose variety of pathology that can not be found by other clinical means. In collaboration with M.D.Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology, AMS of Ukraine, worked out the protocol of clinical evaluation and developed new method of cardio pathology diagnostics (first of all, heart ischemia) and evaluation of therapy efficiency. Noninvasive and completely safe method of magneto-cardiography can be used for massive heart diseases monitoring.
Elaborated intellectual video-computer system that allows fast real time image collection and processing and can automatically indicate any changes in informational and other features of the observed object. Intellectual systems of video-control, observation and tracing found wide application in the automated industrial processes (quality, size, color control), safety systems and special applications, can be basis for gesture, facial mimic recognition systems for the new generation of robots and virtual reality systems.
Developed very important portable devices: for noninvasive measurements of hemoglobin in human tissues; portable chronofluorometer that automatically controls plants physiological and developmental state; immunosensor for quick field diagnostics of animal viral leucosis; stationary and mobile version of informational complexes for agricultural and environmental needs in farming that include expert diagnostic system for plant evaluation, their diseases and its treatment, common weeds evaluation and economically effective agro business programs.
According to the international project with China developed highly productive signal digital processing and computing system (over 1 billion operations/sec) for the complicated hydrological scientific and technological research.
Institute scientists made significant contribution into development of the efficient information technologies for the benefit of ministries, departments and other governmental structures: Social Insurance Fund, State Taxes Administration of Ukraine, Supreme Court of Ukraine, Treasury of Ukraine, etc. Developed systems function efficiently and constantly upgraded.
During the 1998-2004 Institute organized series of scientific conferences including International Symposium "Computers in Europe. Past, Present and Future"; 50-years Celebration of MESM, 100-years birthday of S.Lebedev - founder of the national computer technique, 80-years birthday of V.Glushkov - founder of informational technologies in Ukraine. Those events brought to Ukraine known specialists from Europe, USA and CIS and produced great international resonance, provided opportunity to highlight distinguished past and current successful research.
Recently, V.Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics strengthen its scientific and technical collaboration with leading research centers of Russia (Computing Center of RAN, Computing Center of Siberian branch of RAN, Ural Scientific Center of RAN) and also with foreign scientific centers. It is important that interested sides provide financial support. Scientists of different countries express great interest toward fundamental results of Ukrainian professionals in information technologies. Institute safely retains leading position in the basic research in the field of cybernetics, computing techniques and information technologies in Ukraine."
About the works of the VM Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the main directions of the work of other institutes in our time can be found from the official information ›››
In 1956 in Severodonetsk a branch was created of the Moscow special desing bureau (SKB-245), later - Scientific and Research Institute of Control Computing Machines SRI CCM (from 1960) - a powerful organization. At the same time construction of the Severodonetsk Instrument-Making plant had begun and was completed in 1960. The personnel of these organizations and enterprises was formed entirely of young specialists, graduated from the educational establishments of Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Kharkov, Lvov, Taganrog, Odessa and other cities. The director of the branch Andrey Novokhatny and his deputy Vladislav Rezanov, the scientific adviser of the works, were the only seniors.
The focal point of their scientific and technical policy was the idea of creation of generally marketed devices of control and computing techniques for different automation objects. On this basis under direction of V.Rezanov the concept of the unified full-function modular system of technical and programmable devices of control computer machines was elaborated and realized. It was done on the basis of standardized structural and technological solutions. The concept provided the possibility to use both technical and program means for diverse project compositions for multi-level control systems of any complexity and specificity. It remains unchanged until today. This approach justified itself completely, as it helped to create the full array of industrial control systems for diverse technological processes and energy objects. Starting from 1965, the demand for such means is dramatically increasing. The technical devices, developed in Severodonetsk, were manufactured at 18 large plants of the USSR.
The Severodonetsk research and production incorporation "Impulse", created on the base of SRI CCM, became the main executor of the largest Soviet economic and defense programs, which demanded the expansion of its research and production facilities. Until 1985, 12 thousands employees worked at the "Impulse" and its branches. The number of systems built for industry and energy with the use of "Impulse" techniques was more than ten thousand. Around a thousand of design offices and research institutes became its partners; the "Impulse" cooperated with them in operating systems creating. It made possible to define the demands to the computer automation facilities more precisely and also helped to increase their technical level, to gain prestige in one of the most actual directions of science and technology.
As a result, a humble branch, which initial task was to introduce automation to the Lisichansk chemical plant, evolved into a powerful organization that provided equipment for thousands of operating systems, created in 1960s-1980s in the USSR. Thus, the center of industrial systems engineering appeared in Donbas along with the center of chemical industry.
In the years of "perestroika" the joint-stock company "Impulse" was organized on the basis of the previous entity.
In the provincial conditions a small group of leading experts, which was formed during the "Impulse" initiation period, managed to gather a team of many thousands people, united by one goal - to create and constantly improve the facilities for computer automation of technological processes and energy objects, including such complicated and crucial ones, as nuclear power stations.
The staff of the Severodonetsk "Impulse" devoted more than thirty years of dedicated and inspired work to the creation of the systems engineering of the I, II, III and IV generations, including 15 types of control machines.
It became possible due to the truly creative, innovative and responsible leadership of the incorporation. These people were not appointed by the authorities "from above"; they were the local specialists. They were the "Impulse" director Andrei Novokhatny and the irreplaceable scientific advisor Vladislav Rezanov.
Andrei Nowokhatny started his career at the Novo-Groznensky oil-refining plant, where he worked at first as an engineer, and later - as a head of a monitoring and automatic machinery department (1952- 1958). In 1958 he started to work at the Lisichansk branch of the Institute of Automatic Machinery of the State Planning Committee of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1959 he became its director. Due to his active efforts and a high organizational skills his branch was developing rapidly and successfully implemented some tasks of state programs. In 1964 the branch was reorganized into Scientific and Research Institute of Control Computing Machines, and in 1972 it became a research and Production Center - "Impulse", which was the largest in the country and united several big scientific organizations and production enterprises. Being a Director General, A.Novokhatny successfully combined research and production developments supervision and their implementations into the most important and unique operating systems, such as automated system of airline tickets reservation and sale "Siren" (1968- 1973), an automated system "Olympiad-80" (1876-1980), a system of land-based and flight tests of the space objects "TEMP" (1973-1979). He promoted implementation of the "Impulse" developments at the centers of astronauts' training and flight tracking (1979-1985). He summarized his works and successfully defended as Ph.D. thesis (1974).
A.Novokhatny is a Severodonetsk honor_ able citizen, awarded with the medals "For Service in Battle", "For the Victory over Germany", "For Taking of Berlin" (1945) and with the orders "Red Banner"(1966), "October Revolution" (1971), "Red Labor Banner" (1976), "People's Friendship" (1981), II degree "Great Patriotic War" (1986). He's got a Honorary Diploma of the Supreme Soviet Presidium of the Ukrainian SSR (1986). He is a laureate of the Council of Ministers of Ukraine Prize (1979).
V.Rezanov took an active part in the formation and realization of the branch, Union and international programs of the operating techniques creation and implementation; he supervised the most important elaborations in this sphere in the USSR. It was namely him who managed to mobilize the team for elaboration of the system engineering facilities, to form a creative atmosphere of excitement about new business and selfless devotion to the common goal.
In 1954 V.Rezanov was appointed chief designer of the Aggregate system of computer technique facilities (ASVT). The work was done according to the Union's plan; the machines M-1000, M-2000, M-3000 were manufactured as series at the Kiev plant of control computing machines, the Severodonetsk instrument-making plant, and Tbilisi plant of control computing machines. On the ASVT basis the scientists and engineers created several control systems of economical and defense significance. Among them was a famous "Siren" system of airline seat reservation, which was the first working system of massive service.
Since 1968 V.Rezanov is the chief designer of the family of M-6000 and M-7000 ASCT models, which became the foundation to construct the systems of control over the processes in almost all spheres of economy and in some defense sectors of the USSR. For ten years Kiev plant of control and computing machines, the Severodonetsk instrument-making plant and the Tbilisi plant of control computing machines manufactured more that 18 thousand M-6000 complexes that were used to assemble more that 15 thousand control systems.
In 1976 V.Rezanov becoms the deputy chief designer of the system of small computers (in Russian - systema malykh elektronnovychislitel'nykh mashin - SM EVM). They replaced M-6000, M-7000 machines.
During the period of 1978-1987 he served as chief designer of super productive geophysical computing complexes of aggregate computer system on the structures that can be reorganized (computer complex PS). This task of the Council of Ministers of the USSR aimed to secure research on natural resources of the Earth and its space probing. From 1981 till 1989 "Impulse" produced 150 complexes ASVT-PS-2000, which are still in use for the cosmic information processing centers, in special hydro acoustic systems, etc.
In 1984-1991 V.Rezanov served as a deputy chief designer of the nuclear power stations control systems, as a chief designer of the program and technical complexes for the very important objects. The first set of the super-reliable program-technical complexes was approved by the State Commission in 1990. The control complexes of such profile are still the main brand of the "Impulse" company nowadays.
Many prominent workers at "Impulse" recognized with awards. Vladimir Kostelyansky, the senior circuit technique specialist, served at all periods of its development. The author of the circuit concepts and projects, key technical and program means, created at the "Impulse". Awarded with the Order of the "Red Labor Banner".
Vladimir Somkin. Engineering and design ideas, elaborated under his supervision, were accepted as standards of the computer facilities creation at the "Impulse" and at the Ministry of Instrument-Making Industry of the USSR. He is the laureate of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR Prize.
Leonid Sopochkin. Great Patriotic War participant. The irreplaceable head of the works on creation of communication devices with the object for all generations of control and information computing complexes, elaborated at the "Impulse". Awarded with the order "October Revolution" and with medals.
Mikhail Obuvalin. The founder of the Severodonetsk school of systemic and applied programming. Awarded with the medals "For Courageous Labor" and "The Veteran of Labor".
Vladimir Vinokurov. The systemic programmer, who managed to provide the independence of the "Impulse" in creation of program-technical complexes of control technique for thirty years.
Illia Itenberg. Directed over several "Impulse" departments, which implemented the key elaborations, was an organizer of the big projects, took part in the creation of the operating control system, served as chief designer of the unique multi-level control system for the sorting complex of the Bratsk timber industry, also as chief designer of the control complexes M-6000 and SM-2, of the highly productive complexes PS-2000 and PS-2100.
Gennady Vshyvtsev. Great Patriotic War participant. Inventor of the storage devices of different destinations for all developments at the "Impulse". Awarded with the order of the "Red Labor Banner" and with medals.
Vasiliy Deyneko. The chief designer and the head of works on the power-supply systems for all elaborations.
Vladimir Kot. Elaborated the automated layout system for the "Impulse' engineering. Awarded with the order of the "Red Labor Banner" and with medals.
Eduard Belikov. Coordinated the activities of several research institutes and design offices, and also of eleven plants, included into the scope of interest of the "Impulse".
Vladimir Barabanov. The chief designer of the first control computer for the direct digital control "Autooperator". Elaborated the microprocessors for the computing complexes, designed at the "Impulse". Awarded with the order of the "Red Labor Banner" and with medals.
Tom Lymansky. Directed the works on reliability questions, including the product elaboration, production and exploitation stages. The author of the complex system of quality control at the "Impulse".
Deed of the young talents will stay in computer history forever. Today Close Corporation "Severodonetsk Research and Production Association "Impulse" successfully continues the glorious business of predecessors.
Microelectronics in Ukraine was developing as a part of the relevant field of the USSR. In 1960s - beginning of 1970s of XX century in Kiev a powerful center of microelectronics - Research and Production Association "Crystal" with branches in other Ukrainian cities was created and successfully functioned. The magnitude of work managed in 8 years, which included development of scientific research, creation of material recourses, staff selection, was reflected in following numbers. There were 148 thousand square meters space built for placing the scientific research organizations and enterprises. All laboratories and plants were completely supplied with necessary equipment. At the beginning of the 1980s more than 30 thousand people worked at the "Crystal". In 1970s-1980s the "Crystal" manufactured its own integrated circuits (including about 30 types of big integrated circuits - BIC), keyboard computers, calculators, microcontrollers, micro-computers, etc. The Ukrainian microelectronics secured the successful development of many industrial spheres of Ukraine as well as of the former USSR. It was used to manufacture the digital radio-electronic gear of planes, rockets, ships, and also to produce the modern consumer techniques, such as radio sets, tape-recorders, etc. For example, in 1974 more than 100 thousand calculators were produced! The "Crystal" became the main organization for the countries of CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) for the production of the microcircuits on MOS (metal, oxide, semiconductor) transistors, the dominating path of BIC development. In the 1970s-1980s its products were only a bit inferior to Western counterparts.
At the end of 1980s as a result of the erroneous research and technology politics (volitional decision of the Ministry of Electronic Industry of the USSR to make American technique "soviet") the "Crystal" was forced to start copying the US achievements that beforehand destined its lagging. But the "Crystal" managed to distinguish itself even in the "sovietization" of the first American microprocessors. The 8-bit and then 16-bit microprocessors, elaborated and produced in lots at the RPA, didn't differ much from the foreign ones that was confirmed by the USA expertise.
Following directive of the Ministry of the Electronic Industry, in 1970 the first in the USSR and Europe microcalculator on the 4 big integrated circuits with the integration level of 500 transistors per crystal was created. BIC were produced at the research plant of the research institute "Micropribor"; the assembling of the calculators was implemented in Svetlovodsk, where the branch of this plant was located.
The RPA "Crystal" had main scientific organization - scientific research institute "Micropribor". In 1972-1973 the "Micropribor" unfolded system of machine design on the basis of BESM-6 and other computers that made possible to design BIC with the high integration level. The elaboration time of BIC decreased to 50-70 days. For this purpose a comprehensive complex of programs was developed to enhance design process of BIC, so hundreds of thousands components could be connected according to the functional destination of BIC, and no mistake would be permitted.
The equipment assembling, preparation and programs tuning demanded the tense three-shift work schedule of the "Micropribor" staff during several months.
To produce new BIC it was necessary not only to elaborate an improved design system, but also more progressive technological processes, which would provide the integration level of more that 100 thousand transistors per crystal and the switching rate up to dozens megahertz. Besides, everything was started "from scratch"; the scientists and designers had no opportunity to use the western experience; the publications on this topic had just appeared in the foreign press.
In a short period they assembled the modern "clean" rooms with the sophisticated technological and measuring-composing equipment; they elaborated and implemented the technology of plastic case production for the BIC, etc.
In 1974 at the plant of semi-conducting devices of the RPA "Crystal" the technological process of BIC production was completely coped and for the first time in Ukraine, in the USSR and Europe their mass production was started.
The "Crystal" successfully managed to do this complicated work. The organization of permanent working cycle (from BIC designing to its construction) made it possible to shorten the new BIC and microprocessor technique production period, to increase their quality and lower the price.
For 1974 there were 200 thousand BIC, 100 thousand calculators, and 200 thousand keyboard computers produced.
Twelve years of microelectronics formation in Ukraine (1962-1974) connected first of all with the name of Stanislav Moralyov. He was born in 1929 in Molotovsk, Kirov region. After graduating from school in 1947 he entered the radio department of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. He worked at the "Arsenal" plant in Kiev as a design engineer on photographic exposure meter elaboration. Here he got acquainted with a famous scientist V.Lashkarev, whose research happened to be very useful for the semi-conductor photographic exposure meter development. Luckily he met a person, who devoted his best years to turn the main scientific achievements into the real microelectronics devices. In 1962 S.Moralyov headed the humble Designed Bureau #3, which he turn into a powerful research institute "Micropribor" in four years. In 1970 the RPA "Crystal" was formed. The research institute "Micropribor" became the leading organization of this association. S.Moralyov, as a Director General of the RPA "Crystal" took a huge responsibility for choosing scientific direction, for staffing, for coordinating the research and designing works with the purpose to implement results into serial productions.
Dedicated work of S.Moralyov was highly recognized in 1970 when he was awarded with order of "Red Labor Banner".
His main assistant in that years was Konstantin Krolevets (1932-1986), a deputy director, a scientific advisor of the works at the "Micropribor", and later - at the "Crystal". He graduated from the engineering physics department of the Kiev polytechnic institute. For 20 years he headed and personally participated in the research connected with the elaboration and production of BIC, formation of the microelectronics devices construction principles, realization of the technological complex with the purpose to produce microprocessor BIC for the gear of economic and special destination. For the last years of his activity he dealt with the elaboration of so-called complementary BIC. It is one of the most promising directions of microelectronics development.
The supervisor of work on elaboration of many BIC, including BIC K1810 - a 16-bit microprocessor, similar to the American Intel x86, was Alfred Kobylinsky.
In 1962 A.Kobylinsky graduated from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, in 1969 he came to the research institute "Micropribor". He greatly contributed to the elaboration of the theoretical base of microprocessor computers and into their production. He received 8 author certificates of invention on this subject. The Presidium of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR awarded him in 1983 with the prize after S.Lebedev for the elaboration and implementation of microprocessor technique.
Being fanatically devoted to work, he didn't spare himself. But his health was seriously compromised: he took part in the first atomic bomb-test and experienced constant back and joints pain after that. However, everyone was amazed with his capacity for work, creativity, optimism and courage.
Under the direction of A. Kobylinsky there were elaborated and introduced into series production 30 types of BIC for 8-bit microcontroller, the 16-bit microprocessor sets of high production and a family of mono-crystal computers, which were the firsts in the national electronics.
The chief designer of the semi-conductor memory in the research institute "Micropribor" was Vladimir Sidorenko, a well-known scientist in the field of solid-state electronics. Under his direction and personal participation the new research and technology field of energy-independent memory devices was formed. V.Sidorenko received 74 author certificates of invention and 6 foreign patents (from the USA, Germany, United Kingdom etc).
The solid contribution into the development of the research institute "Micropribor" and then RPA "Crystal" was made by the Doctor of Technical Science, Professor Vladimir Belevsky. Due to his talent and devoted work the vacuum equipment, thin-film technology, the chip workshop and several producing enterprises were created in Kiev, Zelenograd, Ivano-Frankovsk, Vinnista and Svetlovodsk. The engineering and design developments elaborated under his direction were implemented at the enterprises of Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Hungary. V.Belevsky is the author of 273 scientific publications and inventions; in 1981-1988 he served as a chief production manager at the Ministry of Electronic Industry of the USSR.
Final transition to the new technologies and equipment demanded huge investments, which "Crystal" didn't have. As a result, in the 90s of XX century, the elaborations and products of the RPA were behind the world level. The collapse of the USSR and the long economic crisis in Ukraine deprived the "Crystal" of its market and state funding.
At the end of 1990s a group of "Micropribor" employees headed by E.Utkin began the renewal of microelectronic technologies in Ukraine. Their straightforwardness and enthusiasm brought the results which had seemed impossible. A powerful factory started production of near 200-300 thousand personal computers per year; the microelectronic technologies are put into order; the relationships with the Ukrainian and the foreign customers are restored, so to say, the Ukrainian research - and production complex called by its creators "silicon grove" keeps on growing.
It is practically proved that the success of any important job depends on the moral qualities and skills of the person and its ability to lead and to guarantee the work completion. But such personalities are rather unique.
The person I will tell you about belongs to that rare brand. For 16 years of very productive creative life in Kiev I.Kudryavtsev managed to conduct work the other person wouldn't have done in dozens of years.
During the "Kiev period" of his activity (1958-1975) Ivan Kudryavtsev managed to create a powerful Research Institute of Radioelectronics and later Research and Production Association "Kvant", which elaborated, designed and manufactured the most important radioelectronic systems with the computer usage for the above - and underwater Navy of the USSR.
His institute was the first in the USSR to initiate the production of the computerized radio-electronic complexes for vessels, where the microelectronic basis and the first in Ukraine and the USSR specialized vessel computers were used (upon the insisting request of Kudryavtsev). The complexes included all necessary technical and program means for satisfying basic needs of the Navy such as gathering information about the environment, control over the weapons, including nuclear, navigation, etc.
The complexes were completely set up in Kiev and then sent to the Navy. The unique test devices were created to imitate the ship situation. Later such approach, connected with the computer engineering and its possibilities, was called system-defined.
In 1975 Ivan Kudryavtsev had passed away. Due to the classified nature of that works, his name is practically unknown even in Ukraine; though in Western countries this specialist was known and attracted active interest to his activities. The English information agency BBC informed the world: "An outstanding organizer of the military industry of the USSR had died."
Ivan Kudryavtsev felt from the very beginning that it was necessary to use computers for the elaborated systems. He was looking for the solution. At first he sent a group of young specialists to the Computing Center at the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR, founded in Kiev in 1957. Learning that the Ministry of the Aircraft Industry had created the onboard computer "Flame", he arranged for the permit to use it in one of the elaborated systems. It was the second important precondition of success.
In 1967 the team, in which he was the chief designer, finished the works on the first system ("Success"). The main contributors (I.Kudryavtsev, V.Alekseev, B.Haskin, I.Kobylyansky, V.Lapiy) were awarded with the State Prize of the USSR. Inspired by the success, Ivan Kudryavtsev decided to create a computer for the USSR Navy systems.
The family of specialized computers called "Carat", which was used in the systems elaborated under I. Kudryavtsev direction, was created in the laboratory of Vilen Plotnikov. The engineering talent and scientific prognostic ability of that person helped the Kiev Research Institute of Radio-Electronics to become a pioneer in the newest directions of computer techniques and microelectronics. Unfortunately, the scientists died in 2000.
"Carats" are still sailing the seas and the oceans.
At the time, when the passion for big things started to prevail and the supercomputers with the exceedingly complicated systems of commands appeared, V.Plotnikov defended the simplified architecture and the commands structure. In 10-15 years the western companies would called such decision RISC - reduced instruction set computer - architecture.
The high reliability of the "Carats", which was 20000 working hours without failure, was one order of magnitude higher than the common hour number of that time.
Minimization of the circuitry and system commands, the choice of structure and unification made it possible to elaborate several systems' modifications for the tasks, which were different in content and size without exceeding the instrument expenses.
The operating indicators - high reliability and orientation on the military service systems demands - provided the minimum expenses on their maintenance, and the modular repair method predetermined modest demands to the service personnel qualification level without sacrifices on "Carats" reliability.
Compartmentalization of the computing core and exchange instruments core promoted simplicity of such machines usage practically in all basic systems, including multi-machines data processing regimes.
For more than 20 years "Carats" provided needed computer services for the institute. They were used in different information processing systems, control systems located at the under- and above-water vessels of the Navy. Seventeen modifications of the "Carat" computer were elaborated; they were different in memory size and dimensional characteristics. All the modifications had the similar commands system, speed, capacity, external connections and were built from the same type of interchangeable blocs. The machine was created as structurally accomplished product, which was assigned for the independent procurement. It was exploited only as part of the system after installation within the instrument board and connection with the necessary communication hubs and other appliances, and allocation within permanent memory for the working programs.
Kiev plant "Burevestnik" manufactured computers "Carats" in serial productions.
Creation of the compact and very reliable computer with high functional parameters fundamentally changed the situation in the naval instrument-making. Since then creators of all systems had an opportunity to use the program methods to solve the tasks, utilizing one or several machines. The consumers had no problems with getting the computer samples, with task programming and with reprogramming according to their own programs. The machine failure was very seldom. For example, the computers "Carat" worked on the objects of the navigation systems for 20 thousand hours without any breakage, which several times exceeded their reliability requirement. Hundreds machines were used successfully in 60 systems and complexes of various purposes (mostly by the Ministry of ship building of the USSR).
In the simple systems the computer was used in a minimal modification; on the biggest modern vessels with the several systems on board 15 and more "Carat" computers of maximal complexity could be found.
The leadership of the Kiev research institute "Kvant" wanted to introduce the machine into the civil systems. The Institute elaborated systems "Biryuza" to navigate the atomic icebreaker "Russia" commissioned by USSR Morflot (1986), "Briz" to automate navigation of the large-tonnage vessels (tankers "Cuban", "Victory", etc.) The system "Breeze-1609-UDS" was installed at the Illichovsk port to control the vessels maneuvering, to prevent clashing and for radar monitoring of their floating in the north-western part of the Black Sea.
The "Carat" computers were used in the "Accord" system, elaborated together with the E. Paton Institute of electric welding of the Academy of Science of Ukraine for the purpose of controlled steel cutting at the ship-building plants.
The creators of the "Carat" computers family and the systems on their basis were awarded with Lenin and State Prizes (V.Kudryavtsev, V.Plotnikov, V.Lapiy, A.Koshevoy, B.Chernov, etc.) For the prominent creative contribution to the field general designer of "Carats" V.Plotnikov was twice awarded with order of "Red Labor Banner" and State Prize of Ukraine.
"Kvant" acquired high ranking in the field of elaborating the built-in, reliable, uniform computers, which were to be exploited in the extreme conditions. The scientific and technical level of the military computer techniques elaborated at the "Kvant", could be compared with the American one.
Let's turn back to the beginning of the 1960s, it would help us to imagine better what exactly was done in Ukraine for the Soviet Navy. At that time Kiev research institute of hydraulic instruments was actively elaborating the so-called dipping helicopter hydro-acoustic stations "Oka" (chief designer Oleg Aleschenko). They were installed at the helicopters Ka-25. "Oka" and Ka-25 were called jokingly "the long hand of Horshkov" (Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Navy). He commissioned the construction of 12 anti-submarine helicopter carriers and a seaborne helicopter of a new type for them. The helicopter made it possible to lengthen the "hand" of the anti-submarine vessel. As a searcher and a carrier of the hydro-acoustic system it was not sensitive to the motion sound of the anti-submarine weapons carriers.
In the Institute of Cybernetics, AS Ukr.SSR, a special group was formed (V.Koval, I.Moroz-Podvorchan, N.Diduk, Yu.Fishman) that in collaboration with O.Aleschenko and his colleagues from the Kiev Research Institute of Hydraulic Instruments had started elaboration of the first in the USSR determination algorithm of the under-water objects position coordinates. The location test took place in Feodosia during the summer-autumn of 1968 with the help of Dnepr computer and was incredibly successful. Now we can determine position of the submarine swimming in the Black Sea.
Oleg Aleschenko, V.Lapiy and V.Kramskoy from Kiev Research Institute of Hydraulic Instruments contributed greatly into the further elaborations.
In the autumn of 1974 a classified state resolution on the "Zvezda" (Star) program came out, which was aimed to re-equip all USSR Navy with the new hydro-acoustic computer complexes. The Research Institute of Hydraulic Instruments was assigned as main organization to accomplish this program (director - Yuriy Burau, chief engineer - Vladimir Krytsyn). O.Aleschenko was appointed as chief designer. This work was complicated and multidirectional. Different classes of the above-water ships - big, middle and small - needed several compatible multi-channel digital hydro-acoustic complexes with tens of thousands of spatial and temporary information inlets. Preliminary estimations demonstrated that they would need computer systems with the productiveness of several hundreds of millions operations per second, and the scope of applied software should provide around million commands. The necessity of large nomenclature of the storage devices, different peripherals (monitors, environmental indicators, recorders, printers), high reliability requirements, etc., really made this elaboration process very complicated. Such unique project hadn't been yet implemented in the USSR or abroad.
In three years under direction of O.Aleschenko, V.Lapiy and V.Kramskoy three powerful computer complexes were created by the hard work of the entire institute team. For the first time the field of specialized parallel multi-channel computer complexes for the hydro-acoustics purposes was formed.
In 1984 all works were over. Entire complex occupied 200 instrument panels! Around million commands were prepared to make the computing part (40 panels) function. The elaboration cost was 100 million rubles. In 1985 the complex was added to the arsenal and approved for the serial production. Its creators were awarded with the State Prize of the USSR (Y.Burau, O.Aleshenko, at all.) In memorial designers made a photograph of one of the complexes approved by the State Commission.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union O.Aleschenko and V.Lapiy were transferred to another job. Selfless dedicated work during the previous years and mainly disturbed life style contributed to their health failure. V.Lapiy passed away first followed by O.Aleschenko.
In the former USSR there were three organizations assigned to create control systems for the rockets and spacecrafts, including onboard computers; one of them was situated in Ukraine. It was the Kharkiv RPA "Khartron" (earlier - "Electropribor").
For more than 40 years it was the leading producer of the control systems for the onboard and land-based computer complexes, complicated electronic equipment for various types of rockets and spacecrafts. During these years the control systems were created for the intercontinental ballistic missile SS-7, SS-8, SS-9, SS-15, SS-18, SS-19, the most powerful launch vehicle in the world "Energy", the launch vehicle "Cyclone", orbital modules "Quantum", "Quantum-2", "Crystal", "Nature", "Spectrum", more than 150 satellites "Cosmos" and other objects.
The first head of the "Khartron" onboard equipment elaboration division created in 1962 was A.Shestopal. In 1966-1992 this unit was headed by A.Kryvonosov.
In 1968 the first experimental sample of the onboard computer built on hybrid modules was tested. In six months its three-channel modification built on monolithic integrated circuits emerged. In 1973 for the first time in the USSR a new rocket 15A14 with the control system, which included the onboard serial computer 15L579 was launched.
The complex of processing characteristics (capacity - 16 bit, memory volume - 8K words, core memory volume - 32 K words, speed - 200 thousands operations per second), reliable element basis, secured for this onboard computer a unique longevity for almost 25 years, and its streamlined variant exploited on boards during the military exercises till today.
In 1979 the missiles 15A18 and 15A35 with the uniform onboard computer system were added to the armory. For the control systems of these "super-products" the novel technology of the mathematic software testing with so-called "electronic launch" was elaborated for the first time in the USSR. The flight and the control system reaction to the main disturbing agents were modeled on a special complex, which included the computer BESM-6 and the produced blocks of the control system. This technology also provided an effective and complete control over the flight tasks. The group of "electronic launch" designers (Y.Isenberg, B.Konorev, S.Koruma, I.Velbitsky and others) received the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR.
For the next years under the supervision of A.Kryvonosov four more generations of the onboard computers were created. They had one of the best in the USSR computing and in-use performance and an effective software design, that made them comparable to the foreign analogs.
The onboard computers, elaborated and produced in Ukraine are used on widely known rocket complexes SS19 ("Satana") till today.
Doctor of technical science Anatoly Krivonosov - the laureate of the Lenin Prize, State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR, honored by the order of the "Red Labor Banner" is still active today.
Very quickly computer engineering had transformed into a separate scientific_ technological direction that has profound significance for the economy, for all spheres of science and technique, for industry, for the defensive capacity of the state, and also for the social sphere development. The special research and design organizations and enterprises on elaboration and production of the computer technique were created.
The Kiev research and production association "Electronmash" was formed on the basis of the Kiev plant "Radiopribor" where the production of the computers was started. The first digital machines, produced by the RPA, were the control machine of wide application "Dnepr" and the electronic machine for fabric incision (EMRT).
On January 1, 1965 on the basis of some departments of the "Radiopribor" the Kiev plant of the computers and control machines was created. It got the constructed industrial building, three workshops (assembly, mechanical and tuning) and special design bureau. Starting from March 1965, after the re-deployment, the plant unfolded its production activity. Its main landmarks are the following:
1965 - continuation of the first in the USSR semi-conductor control machine "Dnepr" production;
1966 - beginning of the machines MIR production for the engineering calculations. The machine was exhibited at the international exhibition "Interogrtechnics-66" and was purchased by the IBM company (USA);
1967 - "Dnepr" exhibition at the Leipzig international fair; the machine became an export product;
1968 - elaboration of the machine "Dnepr-2" was finished and its production was started; the machine was designed to solve a wide range of problems of planned economy, engineering, production processes control, data processing; the machine EMRT-2 was exported to several countries;
1969 - creation of the press-center on the basis of "Dnepr" at the exhibition "Automatization-69"; beginning of the computer "Kashtan" production, which was designed to automate the fabric incisions demands according to the assortment;
1970 - beginning of the Aggregate system of the computer techniques M-3000 first models production;
1971 - plant was awarded with the "Red Labour Banner" order;
1972 - plant transformation into the research and production association "Electronmash"; Research institute of Periphery Equipment creation; the production of the first Soviet computer M-400 built on integrated circuits;
1973 - elaboration of the control computer complex M-4030 supervised by Designer General S.Zabara;
1974 - production of the computer M-6000 and M-400; the plant manufacturing computer technique devices opened in Glukhov as part of the RPA;
1975 - great success of the complex M-4030 at the international exhibition "Interorgtechnique-75"; over 100 positive comments from the leading world companies;
1976 - several employees of the association awarded with the state prize of the Ukrainian SSR for the elaboration and production of the complex M4030 (A.Nezabytovsky, S.Zabara, V.Afanasiev, E.Sakaev, V.Kharitonov, Y.Ozhyganov, A.Melnychenko);
1977 - elaboration and production of the control complex M-4030-1;
1978 - production beginning of the models for the small computer international system; production of the SM-3 machine;
1979 - the production beginning of the small computer next model SM-4; production of several peripherals, elaborated by the research institute had begun, among them were the alphanumeric printing device, the memory storage devices on the magnetic tapes and hard disks, accumulating devices on floppies, the device for graphic information entry, the device for seismic information registration, the graphical display;
1980 - creation of the M-4030-1 based automated control system that serviced the Moscow Olympiad; elaboration and production of the automated projecting system in radio-electronics ARM2-01 (construction designing);
1981 - several people of the RPA staff awarded with the State prize of the USSR for the computer complexes SM-3 and SM-4 elaboration and production (A.Nezabytovskyi, V.Afanasiev, S.Zabara);
1982 - elaboration and production of the automated projecting system in radio-electronics ARM2-5 (micro-program designing);
1983 - creation of a new computer model SM-1420 and its production;
1984 - group of employees awarded with the State Prize of the Ukrainian SSR for the elaboration of the KODIAK automated complex for diagnostic control of the complicated blocks of hardware (V.Sidorenko, M.Berstein, O.Rukkas);
1985 - elaboration of the new SM-1420-1 computer model;
1986 - elaboration of SM-1425 was over; the complex ARM2-01 awarded with the Leipzig international fair gold medal; the computer SM-1800 is working successfully at the floating station "Severny Polyus 28" (North Pole 28);
1987 - first production of the new SM-1814 computer model for exploitation in the hard industrial conditions;
1988 - elaboration completion of the personal computers "Poisk-1" and "Nivka";
1989 - control computer complex SM-1702 creation; computer SM-1425 first production.
The bright example that can describe the creative style of the working team would be the "Vikhr" project (under the direction of O.Sladkov). In 1960s the Soviet space program was developing blusterously; the first Earth artificial satellite was launched; a man has visited space for the first time; the preparation for the space apparatus flight to the Moon was started.
The "Vikhr" project was aimed to elaborate the automation system to test launch vehicle of the space ships, designed for the Moon flights. The task was to gather a large amount of information from sensors, installed on the engine, in a short time (up to 300 sec) and then process them later.
The core of the system consisted of computer "Dnepr", though it had to be significantly modernized. The interruption system was improved, the main memory was extended from 512 to 4096 26-bit words, and the object communication device was elaborated. By the autumn of 1965 all parts of the "Vikhr" were produced and delivered to the design bureau of the Chief designer of the space systems (Kaliningrad city in the Moscow region). In addition to the departments, which worked on the elaboration of the space ships and systems, the center for space flight monitoring was also situated there.
The works on the system were successfully finished on time. Its implementation helped to decrease the testing time of the launch vehicles for the "lunokhod". Thus, Ukrainian scientists, engineers and manufacturers contributed into the first flight of the Soviet spacecraft to the Moon, photographing of its dark side, safe landing of the spacecraft on the Moon.
The Director of the RPA "Elektronmash" Appolinary Nezabitovsky and his deputy and Director of the Institute of peripheral devices Stanislav Zabara played an outstanding role in the enterprise establishing and blooming during the 70-80th of the last century.
Unfortunately, nowadays the "Electronmash" essentially decreased the computer technique production volums. But its leaders managed to save the team of the computer creators, which would definitely help to revive the pioneer enterprise of the computer industry in Ukraine.
M.Kartsev (1923-1983) is one of those scientists, whose profound achievements got official and whole recognition, unfortunately, only after death. The academic elite didn't award him with high ranks.
Computer science and technique was his calling. He devoted to it all his time - at work, at home, on vacation.
Mykhail Kartsev was born in Kiev on March 10, 1923. Before the war his family moved to Odessa. At the first days of the Second World War he was drafted to the army. After discharge he studied at the radio technical department of the Moscow Energy Institute. At the third year of studies he passed the examinations for the next year without attending lectures and in 1950, being the fifth year student, he becomes a part-time employee at the laboratory of electronic systems in the Energy Institute of the AS of the USSR. Over there young scientist participated in the one of the first USSR computer M-1 elaboration process. In 1952 he got a job of the young research worker in the laboratory of the electronic systems at the Energy Institute of the AS of the USSR. Working on the computer M-2, M. Kartsev demonstrated his great talent. A small group of people created the machine only in a year and a half! (it took twice longer to produce BESM and the team was much bigger!) Of course, the characteristics of the M-2 were lower than those of the BECM, but it was a solid machine (by Kartsev words).
M.Kartsev defended his doctoral thesis on the results of the research, done during the elaboration of the M-4M that was designed for the computer gathering and processing of the radar data. For the construction of the machine he was awarded with the State Prize of the USSR (1967).
In 1969 the USSR government issued decree to create computer M-10. In December 1973 its industrial sample was tested, its serial production had begun and lasted for more than 15 years. Several dozens of sets were produced; most of them are still in use today. Several powerful computer complexes were created on the basis of the M-10 machines. Working in one of them, the machine M-10 and mathematic applications passed successfully state examination in 1976.
The computer M-10 was a multiple-processor system of synchronous type and belonged to the machines of the third generation: its main logical elements were microcircuits of 217 series "Posol" ("Ambassador"). The machine was used to service complicated automated control systems in the real time scale, and also was able to solve a wide range of scientific and technical problems.
Being bit less productive than the American supercomputer "Cray-1" (due to imperfect elemental and technological base), the computer M-10 was better in terms of architecture possibilities. They are defined by the average number of machine cycles per one operation. The lesser is number, the better is architecture. This number for M-10 was between 0,9 and 5,3 for the whole spectrum of operations, and for the "Cray-1" - between 0,7 and 27,6.
The machine was elaborated for the System of Missile Attack Prevention (SMAP) and also for the general observation of the outer space. The information about it appeared for the first time in the "Pravda" newspaper (April 1, 1990, an article by A.Gorokhov "Standing on Perestryalove"). The task of the system was to provide the USSR military and political authorities with the reliable information on the missile attack threat and on the situation in the space (nowadays there are around 17 thousand objects of different origin, including functioning and non-active satellites, pieces of carrier rockets flying at the near-Earth orbits). The first division of SMAP is cosmic, the satellites recorded the rockets launch by the flame of their engines. The core of the system is its second on-land division, which includes powerful radar stations, situated in nine of them before the Soviet Union collapse: nearby Riga, Murmansk, Pechora, Irkutsk, Balkhash, Mingechaur, Sevastopol, Mukachevo), and also the network of computer complexes based on M-10.
Before 1980s the computer M-10 had the highest productivity (by some estimations 20-30 million of operations per second), capacity of the core memory and carrying capacity of the multiplex channel in the USSR. For the first time in the world several progressive solutions were realized in the machine; the possibility to interconnect up to 7 computers synchronously during the direct (passing the multiplex channel) information interchange between the programs of separate machines and dynamic equipment allocation; the automatic reorganization of the processors' field was available; the computer got the second level of the inherent memory with capacity over 4 million bytes with easy access; the external interchange between both levels of memory was provided.
The novelty of the technical solutions was protected by 18 invention certificates and 5 certificates on industrial samples.
In 1978 M.Kartsev initiated the works on new multi-processor vectorial computer; he utilized the experience gained during elaboration and production of the M-10 and M-10M, and also the modern achievements in technology and electronic technique. The machine was conventionally called M-13.
M-13 became the machine of the 4th generation. The big circuits were used as the elemental base. This multiprocessor vector machine architecture was designed to support real time large flows of information processing and consisted of four main parts: the central processing unit, the hardware devices for the operation system, communication device and the specialized processing unit.
In the multi-processor system of the IV generation M-13 some new technologies were used for the first time: the equipment of the post-operational cycles, which provided the independent work of the program regardless the number of processors in the system; the equipment for the segment-page memory organization, which extended the capacity of the file system; program controlled peripheral processor for operations like Fourier, Welsh, Adamar and Frenel transforms; calculation of correlation functions and spatial filtering etc. Average speed of the central part was up to 50 million operations per second (or up to 200 million of short operations per second), built-in memory was up to 34 MB, external interchange speed - up to 100 MB per second, equivalent speed of the peripheral processor on its type of tasks was up to 2 billion of operations per second.
For his innovative achivements M.Kartsev was awarded with the Lenin Prize (1978), with the "Red Labor Banner" order (1971), with "Sign of Honor" (1966) and with the medal "For Courageous Work". In 1967 M.Kartsev was awarded with the State Prize of the USSR.
On April 23, 1983, he passed away. After 10 years in 1993 the Research Institute of Computer Complexes (Moscow) was given the name of its founder - Mikhail Kartsev.
Being a senior student at the Moscow State University and working on his graduation diploma project, the future creator of the first and the only in the world ternary computer Nikolay Brusentsov (born in 1925 in Dneprodzerzhynsk, Ukraine) bumped into necessity to calculate the complex tables. By that time he had already got to know numerous calculating methods and composed the diffraction tables on elliptic cylinder (know as Brusentsov tables). Thus, the base for his activity in the field of computer engineering at the Moscow state University was formed.
His scientific advisor academician S.Sobolev was interested in creating a small computer, which would have price, size and reliability good enough to use it in the institute's laboratories. In the seminars that he organized took part such scientists as M.Shura-Bura, K.Semendyaev, E.Zhogolev and, of course, S.Sobolev himself. They analyzed the disadvantages of the existing machines, discussed the commands system and structure, which is now called the architecture, examined the variants of technical realization, being inclined to magnetic elements, as transistors didn't exist at the time; they rejected vacuum tube diodes at once, choose easy accessible mandrels and semiconductor diodes and decided to do assembly by themselves. At the seminar on April 23, 1956, with S.Sobolev participation, the main technical demands to the small computer composition were formulated. M.Brusentsov was appointed the head and, at first, the only executant of the works. It should be emphasized that it was all about the machine with binary notation using magnetic elements.
At that moment M.Brusentsov got an idea to use the ternary notation. It made possible to create very simple and reliable elements and to reduce their number in the machine by factor of seven. It also reduced the demands to the capacity of power supply, to the rejection of mandrels and diodes, and above all, the opportunity appeared to use the natural number coding instead of the direct, inverse and additional codes.
In 1958 the laboratory staff (there were almost 20 of them at that time) assembled the first sample of the machine with their own hands. They were excited like children, when after 10 days of tuning the computer came out alive! It was the first case like that in the practice of the machine creators and tuners of those years. The machine was called "Setun" after the river nearby the Moscow University.
The Council of Ministers of the USSR decreed that the Kazan plant of mathematical machines would be responsible for the serial production of the "Setun" computer. Design documentation for the machine was prepared at the special design bureau of the Institute of Cybernetics of the AS of the Ukrainian SSR. The first sample of the machine was showcased at the State exhibition in Moscow. The second one was tested at the plant, because the plant administration tried to prove that the machine, which was evaluated by the Inter-departmental commission and worked successfully at the State exhibition, wasn't good enough to be manufactured. M.Brusentsov recalls: "We had to align factory (second) sample with relevant documentation by our own hands; at the tests it had shown 98% of effective time with only one failure (a teletype diode was broken), and also a solid capacity by means of climate and voltage variations. On September 30, 1961, the director of the plant had been obliged to sign up a document that stopped his attempts to bury our machine."
The Kazan plant produced 50 "Setun" computers; 30 of them worked at the higher education establishments of the USSR.
The machine sparked the great interest abroad. The Ministry of foreign commerce had received requests from capitalistic European states, not talking about the socialistic countries. But none of them was realized; the ministry cancelled the production.
The next computer was "Setun-70", a machine, which combined the unknown at that time (1966-1968) RISC-ideas with the advantages of ternary logics, ternary code and structured programming of Edsger Dijkstra. A dialog system of structured programming was created for it that contained numerous highly efficient, reliable and compact products, such as: cross-system of microcomputer programming, elaboration systems of technical aids on the basis of mono-crystal microprocessors, text processing systems, robot-manipulators control, medical monitoring, etc.
Nowadays Nikolay Brusentsov, a veteran of the computer techniques, leads the computer laboratory at the Department of numerical analysis and cybernetics of the Moscow M.Lomonosov State University. His main research interests are the digital machines architecture, automated teaching systems, programming systems for mini- and microcomputers. The computer "Setun-70" is still successfully used at the Moscow University.
Israel Akushsky (1911-1992), originally from Dnepropetrovsk, created the first in the world specialized computer with the calculation system of residual classes that had long exploitation period and productivity of over 1 million operations per second.
Studying at the Moscow State University, he began his career as numerator at the Research Institute of mathematics and mechanics of his Alma Mater.
In those years (1954-1956) he'd got an idea to use certain calculation system in the computers that could speed up calculation process. He devoted all his life to its realization. At first, the enthusiastic researcher worked at the special design bureau-245 as a senior scientific worker, later - as a head of the laboratory at the mathematics department. There he supervised the elaborations of the specialized computer for military purpose with the calculation system of residual classes. The speed of the computer was more than 1 million operations per second, which was the profound achievement of that time.
Yet, not all the things were so optimistic, although several technical solutions were patented in the countries leading in computer engineering (Great Britain, USA, Japan). While I.Akushsky was working at the scientific center in Zelenograd, one American company was ready to cooperate with him in creation of a new machine "stuffed" with his ideas and the newest electronic base from the States. Preliminary negotiations had begun already. K.Valiev, the Director of the Research Institute of Molecular Electronics, was preparing to begin works with the American newest chips. Suddenly I.Akushsky was called to the authorities. They proclaimed without any explanations: "Zelenograd scientific center shouldn't enrich the intellectual potential of the West!" And all works were interrupted. Unfortunately, that was not a solo case, when brutality and intrigues blocked the way for the brilliant technical thoughts of I.Akushsky.
Among computer efficiency issues, scientist paid great attention to the speed and data compactness. Here he and his students managed to find several successful solutions. Thus, one of them helped to compress telemetric information from one of the satellites by 6 times.
On the basis of residual classes he elaborated the calculations methods in the huge diapason for numbers of hundred thousand grades. This determined the approaches for solving several calculation tasks in the theory of numbers that stayed unresolved since the times of Euler, Gauss, and Fermat.
I.Akushsky also dealt with mathematical theory of calculations, its applications in the computer parallel arithmetic, spreading this theory onto the field of multi-dimensional algebraic objects, questions of reliability of special calculators, obstacle-protected codes, methods of calculations organization using means of optoelectronics.
I.Akushsky is a creator of a unique computer. Over 200 research publications widely known in the USSR and abroad convincingly speak about it.
It should be mentioned that yet in 1951 S.Lebedev was the first who applied to the government with the motivation of necessity to train specialists in the sphere of computer engineering, but nothing happened then. V.Glushkov, right after his arrival to Kiev, began active promotion of the cadre preparation, including high qualification professional training. First of all, the specializations in computational mathematics and computational techniques were introduced to the Kiev University and Kiev Polytechnic Institute at the Radio-Technical Faculty. Later on their basis the Faculty of Cybernetics was created at the University and the Faculty of Automation and Computing Techniques - at the Institute.
V.Glushkov initiated formation of the Theoretical Cybernetics Chair at the Mechanic and Mathematic Faculty of the Kiev Shevchenko State University. He was its first head. In 1969 for the first time in the USSR Faculty of Cybernetics was founded at the Kiev University, thanks to V.Glushkov. Its first dean was the academician of the AS of the Ukrainian SSR I.Lyashko. The "core" of the Faculty represented Chair of Theoretical Cybernetics and Chair of Computational mathematics.
V.Glushkov demanded that all employees going on business trips to Ukrainian cities have to visit universities, give lectures or consultations, meet students and agitate the most talented of them to work at the Institute of Cybernetics.
Specialists preparation started from the school. Institute of Cybernetics AS Ukr.SSR gave patronage to the secondary education, where programming was taught in high school. Different contests and Olympiads were organized for the school students and members of the Small Academy of Science. During the summer time they were given lectures by the scientists from Kiev, Moscow and Novosibirsk. The boarding school in Pheophaniya was organized; the Institute of Cybernetics was its patron. Then it was transferred to the Kiev University.
The scientists from the Institute of Cybernetics gave lectures in the House of scientific and technical propaganda for retraining of the Kiev engineering and technical personnel. The courses of lectures by Glushkov on automata theories and algorithms were published as separate monographs.
And finally, wasn't forgotten the middle link - training of the computer operators and technicians. This specialty was introduced into one of Kiev's technical schools. In Ukraine a solid basis for educating computer designers and cybernetic systems elaborators was formed.
The Ukrainian scientists prepared and published textbooks and reference books on digital computer engineering, wrote numerous monographs on computer theory, organized publishing of scientific journals on cybernetic and computer topics.
Thanks to these activities, Kiev and other cities of Ukraine had enough engineers, programmers, system analysts for computer usage.